Reshape data from wide to long or from long to wide in R

Reshaping though frequently required in data analysis, so often it remains confusing even if you are frequent user of reshape function. Here I have provided an simple example to elaborate more on each argument of reshape. Reshape data from wide to long Your data in wide form if the multiple observations of item, place or person (i.e.¬†units) has been recorded in single row (but in multiple column). This multiple observations may be of repeated measure type (observation are made repeatedly at different time point) or multiple characteristics of some unit (eg. »